# Roman numerals

## Roman numerals and numbers

 The Roman numerals used today, Roman numerals characters I V X L C D M ↁ ↂ value 1 5 10 50 100 500 1.000 5.000 10.000

As the “Roman numerals” refers to the number of characters created in ancient Roman times and is still in use for numbers and special-purpose number font,

in the present normal form the Latin letter I (1), V (5) X (10) L (50), C (100) D (500) and M (1000) as numerals for the case of natural numbers are used.

It is an additive number font, with supplementary rule for subtractive case of certain characters, but without place value system and no sign of zero. This is based on a numerical system with the base number of five and ten.

History of Roman numerals

All Roman numerals or Roman numerals were in Central Europe because of their lower aptitude for written arithmetic operations in the period from 12 to 16 Century increasingly in the field of computing and mathematics displaced by the introduced by Arab models written in the decimal system with the arithmetic and the use of zero. Roman numerals remained for other purposes, for the epigraphic or ornamental spelling of numbers, especially for dates, for lists of kings, popes and other carriers of the same name, the band, book, chapter and section count in texts and the numbering of measuring instruments such as the dial of the clock still in use today.

In Roman numerals used characters have a fixed value. There are orders of magnitude than the underlying assets (“One”), the underlying fivefold (“five”). Apart from the subtraction of the value of is independent of the position.

The Roman numerals today?

Today the display with uppercase (capital letters) is common. For page numbering (for example, in the preface, to distinguish from the actual, numbered with Arabic numerals main part of a book), even when alphanumeric classifications are preferably used.

Here are a few good examples of Roman numerals:

How to write 2013 in Roman numerals ?

M (1000) + M (1000) + X (10) + III (3) = MMXIII
How to write 1650 in Roman numerals?

M (1000) + D (500) + C (100) + L (50) = MDCL

### Thus, in Roman numerals these simple rules:

 Rules Examples The Roman numerals are simply added together from left to right, starting always with the greatest number 135 = CXXXV 100 (C) + 10 (X) + 10 (X) + 10 (X) + 5 (V) The Roman numerals I, X, C and M may be used a maximum of 3 times side by side, numbers V, L, D only 1x. 3052 = MMMLII 1000 (M) + 1000 (M) + 1000 (M) + 50 (L) + 1 (I) +1 (I) When a small figure standing in front of a large, then this will be subtracted from the larger smaller easy. 900 = CM 1000 (M) – 100 (C) I 1 II 2 III 3 IV 4 V 5 VI 6 VII 7 VIII 8 IX 9 X 10 XII 12 XIV 14 XV 15 XVII 17 XIX 19 XX 20 XXX 30 XL 40 XLIX 49 L 50 LX 60 XC 90 XCIIX 98 C 100 CC 200 CCC 300 CD 400 D 500 DCC 700 CM 900 M 1000 MCMLVIII 1958 MM 2000 MMXIV 2014

### One Response to Roman numerals

1. email hcker says:

great article i liked it..